Objectives

  • Apply the anatomical planes of orientation as you look at the CNS specimens and cross-sectional imaging studies.
  • Describe the major surface markings of the forebrain and brainstem.
  • Identify major sulci and gyri on the surface of the brain.
  • Identify the 5 cerebral lobes and define their boundaries in general terms.
  • Describe the location/organization of grey matter and white matter in the CNS in general terms.
  • Relate the three meningeal layers and the spaces between them to common pathologies that can be found in these real and potential spaces.
  • Explain the organization of the ventricular system and the location of its component parts, as well as the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Videos

Learning Modules

External Links

Objectives

  • Describe the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and its relationship to the vertebral canal and the organization of blood supply to the spinal cord.
  • Identify the locations of the corticospinal tract, the posterior column-medial lemniscus system and the anterolateral system in a cross section of the spinal cord.
  • Identify the location of somatic sensory, visceral sensory, somatic motor and visceral motor neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
  • Sketch the longitudinal course of the corticospinal tract, the posterior column-medial lemniscus system and the anterolateral system throughout the spinal cord and brainstem and demonstrate an understanding of somatotopic arrangement, site of crossing fibres, and modalities carried within these tracts.
  • Identify the meningeal layers around the spinal cord and relate these to the spaces they border with and define. Explain the functional importance of these spaces for clinical practice.
  • Describe how the neuroanatomy of micturition relates to the underlying pathways and their locations in the brainstem and spinal cord. Correlate clinical presentations of bladder dysfunction to lesions of these pathways.
  • Describe the typical symptoms seen in spinal cord injuries as they relate to motor, sensory and autonomic function to the tracts discussed in this lab.

Videos

Review Videos (MEDD 411)

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

External Links

Objectives

  • Describe and localize the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their major components.
  • Compare and contrast the functional components of the right and left hemispheres. Localize the functional areas.
  • Analyze the deficit that would result from cortical lesions to the different functional areas. Differentiate between right and left hemisphere lesions.
  • Explain the classical cortical representation of language and its clinical significance.
  • Describe the location of the major subcortical fiber bundles.
  • Describe the tracts running through the internal capsule, their location within the internal capsule, and the blood supply to the internal capsule.
  • Describe the function of the thalamus as the gatekeeper to the cortex. Describe which systems relay through the thalamus.
  • Review the visual system. Describe and localize the relevant tracts and structures.
  • Describe the blood supply to the forebrain.

Videos

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

External Links

Objectives

  • Describe the major surface markings, including cranial nerve roots, of the brainstem and how they relate to tracts and structures within the brainstem.
  • Compare and contrast the corticobulbar tract to the corticospinal tract.
  • Describe the functional anatomy of the ascending and descending medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF).
  • Identify the cranial nerves involved in eye movements on the surface of the brainstem and identify their nuclei within the brainstem on cross sections.
  • Explain the underlying pathways and connections of horizontal eye movements for saccadic and pursuit movements as well as the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
  • Apply the neuroanatomy of the control of eye movements to typical clinical presentations.

Videos

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

External Links

Objectives

  • Identify the major structures of the limbic system (limbic lobe, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala) on brain specimens and in micrographs.
  • Relate the main functions of the limbic system in affective-motivational processing, learning, and memory to common psychiatric case presentations.
  • Explain the basic mechanisms and neural substrates of memory formation.
  • Describe the blood supply to the hypothalamus, hippocampus and amygdala.

Videos

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

External Links

For Interest

Objectives

  • Describe the relationship of the functional anatomy of CN IX, X, XI and the location of their respective nuclei to a neurological exam which examines the brainstem.
  • Explain the neuroanatomical pathways associated with brainstem reflexes tested in the conscious and unconscious patient.
  • Describe the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the eye to the clinical assessment of eye reflexes.
  • Describe the relationship of changes in upper limb posture of unconscious patient to underlying damage to the brainstem.
  • Describe the consequences of herniation syndromes associated with increases in intracranial pressure.
  • Identify the main nuclei associated with the reticular formation and outline their function to influence the level of consciousness.

Videos (Review)

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

Objectives

  • Apply the neuroanatomy of the facial nerve (CN VII) to common manifestations of facial palsy.
  • Apply the neuroanatomy of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) to common manifestations of trigeminal nerve lesions (trigeminal neuralgia).
  • Integrate the neuroanatomy of the location of the nuclei associated with CN V and VII to common brainstem lesion symptom clusters.
  • Describe the pain pathways from the spinal cord through the brainstem to the cortex, and their integration with the modulation of the pain experience.
  • Integrate peripheral nociception with the central experience and modulation of the pain experience.

Videos

Learning Modules

Additional Site Resources

External Links