• Describe the relationship of the functional anatomy of CN IX, X, XI and the location of their respective nuclei to a neurological exam which examines the brainstem.
  • Explain the neuroanatomical pathways associated with brainstem reflexes tested in the conscious and unconscious patient.
  • Describe the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the eye to the clinical assessment of eye reflexes.
  • Describe the relationship of changes in upper limb posture of unconscious patient to underlying damage to the brainstem.
  • Describe the consequences of herniation syndromes associated with increases in intracranial pressure.
  • Identify the main nuclei associated with the reticular formation and outline their function to influence the level of consciousness.


The Orbit
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