- Describe the major surface markings, including cranial nerve roots, of the brainstem and how they relate to the tracts and structures within the brainstem.
- Compare the corticobulbar tract with the corticospinal tract.
- Describe the functional anatomy of the ascending and descending medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF).
- Identify the cranial nerves involved in eye movements on the surface of the brainstem and identify their nuclei within the brainstem on cross sections.
- Explain the underlying pathways and connections of horizontal eye movements for saccadic and pursuit movements as well as the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
- Apply the neuroanatomy of the control of eye movements to typical clinical presentations.
- Describe the blood supply to the brainstem from the vertebro-basilar system and relate the perfusion territories of the major vessels to the main structures they supply.
Brainstem Overview & Cranial Nerves