• Describe the major surface markings, including cranial nerve roots, of the brainstem and how they relate to the tracts and structures within the brainstem.
  • Compare the corticobulbar tract with the corticospinal tract.
  • Describe the functional anatomy of the ascending and descending medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF).
  • Identify the cranial nerves involved in eye movements on the surface of the brainstem and identify their nuclei within the brainstem on cross sections.
  • Explain the underlying pathways and connections of horizontal eye movements for saccadic and pursuit movements as well as the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
  • Apply the neuroanatomy of the control of eye movements to typical clinical presentations.
  • Describe the blood supply to the brainstem from the vertebro-basilar system and relate the perfusion territories of the major vessels to the main structures they supply.


Brainstem Overview & Cranial Nerves
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